EPIC is a power grid testbed comprising four stages of Generation, Transmission, Micro-grid, and Smart Home. Each stage has its own switches, PLCs, power supply unit, protection and communication systems in a ring network via fibre optic to enhance communication rates. High-availability Seamless Redundancy and Media Redundancy Protocol (MRP) switches are used in the ring network for redundancy purposes. EPIC observes the IEC 61850 communication protocol for electrical substation and automation system. Generic object oriented substation event (GOOSE) and Manufacturing message specification (MMS) is used in EPIC ring network for the data transfer between relays and SCADA.
The Generation stage consists of power source from SUTD’s grid and three generators. At Transmission stage, an autotransformer is used to step up or step down the voltage to smart home or micro-grid. Eleven. Smart home consist of two load bank, 15 and 30kVa with loads ranging from resistive, inductive and capacitive with a 0.5 steps. Micro-grid consist of photovoltaic cells (PV) and batteries. Breakers interlocks is also implemented in between transmission, smart home and micro-grid to prevent clashing in the voltages and frequency of the system. Smart meters with Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) where readings of voltages, current, power factor and energy are installed in several locations throughout EPIC grid to measure the kWH consumed by generators, PV and the autotransformer. Readings on individual meters can be viewed via a web based workstation that store readings mention including graphical representation.
WAGO is selected as the PLC to control the opening/closing of breakers and synchronisation logic for the generators . Communication for EPIC is divided into five portions: Generation, Transmission, Micro-Grid, Smart Home and controls. 110PV cells are installed on the rooftop, with inverters to convert the solar to electrical energy and feed it into the testbed. Battery bank with inverters are used to supplement power supply to EPIC in the event of a blackout or low energy conversion owing to cloud cover. SCADA backup power with a separate battery bank is also implemented to have the network to be up in the event of a total blackout.
EPIC is also designed to be able to supply power to run both SWaT and WADI concurrently via power cables connected to the testbed . This is useful for research into the cascading effects of cyber attacks of a power plant to downstream infrastructure. EPIC will also support experimental investigation into the cyber security aspects of the distributed cyber components controlling the physical components such as generators and transformers. Three ongoing research projects – Cyber Physical System Protection, Advancing Security of Public Infrastructure using Resilience and Economics, and the latter’s water extension project – all contain research objectives and deliverables that can be supplemented and validated by the three testbeds described above. These include cyber attack and defence models, remote attestation, machine learning, economic models, trustworthy and secure data acquisition and communications in CPS etc.
Data Flow/Network Diagram with GOOSE and MMS
EPIC Single Line Diagram